Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion Robert Cialdini Books In Hindi Summary Pdf

Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion Robert Cialdini Influence:- The Psychology of Persuasion Chapter 1:- Weapons of Influence M. W. Fox jo ki ek animal behaviourist hai unhone tukey jaanwar par ek experiment kiya. Inhe study se pata chala ki mother turkey jab bhi “CHEEP-CHEEP” Ki aawaz sunti hai to use pata chal jaata hai ki uska bacha uske pass hai, aur use uski care rakhni hai. gar bacha “CHEEP-CHEEP” ki aawaz nhi nikalta to vo uski care nhi karegi aur kaye baar use maar bhi degi. Bache ki Baaki saari cheeze jaise ki uski smell aur uski appearance se zaada fark nhi padta tha. Ek mother turkey ke liye “POLECAT” uski sabse badi dushman hai aur jaise hi vo “POLECAT” ko dekhegi vo use maar degi. Researchers ne ek nakli polecat liya aut dhaage se use Turkey ke paas le gaye. Jaise hi turki ne us polecat ko dekha to vo paaglo Turkey ke paas le gaye, Jaise ni LUIKI ne us polecat ko dekha to vo paaglo ki tarah use maarne lag gayi, aur ye expected bhi tha. Dusre experiment me researchers ne polecat ke ander ek tape recorder rakh diya jo ki “CHEEP-CHEEP” ki aawaz nikalta tha. Is baar jab us nakli pole cat ko mother turkey ke paas le jaaya gaya to turkey ne use is baar nhi maara balki use apne baaki bacho ke saath le gayi aur apne bacho ki tarah feathers ke neeche rakh liya. Jab researchers ne us “CHEEP CHEEP” ki aawaz ko band kiya to turkey dobara se us nakli pole cat ko maarne lag gayi. Ab hum me se zaada tar log ye sochenge ki ye to jaanwar the hum thodi bhi na aisa karte hai. Iske liye Ellen Langer jo ki HARWARD SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGIST HAI unhone ek experiment kiya. Ye experiment ek bhut hi basic human behaviour ke principle par tha “KI JAB BHI HUM KISI SE FAVOUR MAANGTE HAITO HUME LOG ZAADA FAVOUR KARENGE JAB HUM UNHE KOI REASON DETE HAI”. Is principle KARENGE JAB HUM UNHE KOI REASON DETE HAI”. Is principle ko prove karne ke liye Ellen ek Photostat ki shop par gayi jaha par log Photostat karne ke liye line me khade the aur unse kaha “EXCUSE ME MERE PASS 5 PAGES HAI KYA MEIN YE MACHINE USE KAR SATI HU” is case me sirf 60% logo ne unhe line me badne diya par jab unhone request ke saath reason diya “EXCUSE ME MERE PASS 5 PAGES HAI KYA MEIN YE MACHINE USE KAR SATI HU KYUNKI MEIN BHUT JALDI ME HU” is case me 94% logo ne use line me badne diya. Shuru me isme aisa lagta hai ki in dono cases ke result me isiliye difference aaya kyunki logo ko ek extra information di gayi thi, aur vo thi “KYUNKI MEIN JALDI ME HU”. But Ellen ne ek aur experiment kiya jisme logo ko koi genuine reason nahi diya gaya jaise ki “EXCUSE ME MERE PASS 5 PAGES HAI KYA MEIN YE MACHINE USE KAR SATI HU KYUNKI mujhe kuch Photostat karna hai” toh 93% logo ne use aage badhne diya. In experiments se ye karna hai” toh 93% logo ne use aage badhne diya. In experiments se ye pata chala ki aap “KYUNKI” shabd ke baad koi bhi reason dete ho to bhi log aapki request ko zaada accept karte hai. Ye exactly Turkey experiment me “CHEEP -CHEEP” sound ki tarah ek mental trigger tha. The Contrast Principle:- Ye principle kehta hai ki agar aapko do cheeze dikhaye jaati hai jo ki ek dusre se alag hai to aap dono cheezo ko zaada alag samjhoge jitni ki vo hai bhi nahi. Agar hum kisi halki cheez ko pehle uthate hai aur uske baad kisi bhaari cheez ko. To hum us bhaari cheez ko uske actual bhaar se zaada bhaari samjhenge. Ek study me students ke saamne teen baltiyan rakhi gayi. Pehli me bhut thanda paani tha dusri me paani normal oom temperature par tha, aur teesre me garm paani. Students ko bataya gaya ki unh eek haath thande paani me rakhna hai aur dusre ko garam paani me. Aur thodi deer me jab unhe bola gaya ki dono haath normal room temperature wale paani par rakhiye gaya ki dono haath normal room temperature wale paani par rakhiye to sab students Hairaan reh gaye kyunki jo haath pehle thande paani me tha usme aisa lag rha tha ki jaise unhone garam paani me haath daal diya ho aur jo haath pehle garam paani me tha usme lag rha tha ki ab vo thande paani me hai. Isse hume pata chalta hai ki same cheez ko log different tareeke se dekh sakte hai jo ki is par depend karega ki unhone us event se just pehle kya mehsoos kiya hai. For example kisi insaan ko 4000 Rupees ka ek sweater bhut mehanga lag sakta hai. Lekin agar usne abi-abhi 60000 Rs ka ek suit khareeda hai tab ek 4000 Rs ka sweater use zaada mehanga nhi lagega. Isiliye ek salesman ke liye zaada fayedemand cheez ye hai ki vo pehle mehangi cheez customer ko aur baad me sasti cheez. Agar vo aisa nhi karta to iska matlab hai ki vo is contrast principle ko nhi samajhta. M. W. Fox jo ki ek animal behaviourist hai unhone tukey jaanwar par ek experiment kiya. Inhe study se pata chala ki mother turkey jab bhi “CHEEP-CHEEP” Ki aawaz study se pata chala ki mother turkey jab bhi “CHEEP-CHEEP” Ki aawaz sunti hai to use pata chal jaata hai ki uska bacha uske pass hai, aur use uski care rakhni hai. Ek chitthi me Sharon apne parents ko lihti hai. Dear mummy and papa, Jabse mein college gayi hun tabse mera padhai me mann nhi lag rha. Pehle mein aapko ye saari baate nhi bata paayi par aaj mein aapko puri sachayi btana chahti hu. Magar pehle aap aaram se baith jaye. Aur is letter ko aage tab hi padhna jab aap baithe ho.Pehle to mein aapko ye batana chahti hu ki mere hostel me aag lagne par jab mein khidki se koodi to mere skull me fracture hua tha, par ab vo almost thik ho gaya hai. Do hafte hospital me rehne ke baad ab mujhe theek se dikhayi bhi dene laga hai aur headache sirf din me ek hi baar hota hai. Kismat se jab mein khidki se koodi thi to saamne wale gas station me ek ladke ne mujhe dekh liya tha aur usi ne fire department aur ambulance ko phone kiya. Vo mujhe hospital me ne fire department aur ambulance ko phone kiya. Vo mujhe hospital me bhi milne aaya. Kyunki mere hostel me aag lag gayi thi aur mere pass rehne ki bhi koi jagah nhi thi isiliye mein usi ladke ke saath rehne chali gayi. Vo bhaut cute hai, aur hum ek dusre se bhut pyaar karne lage hai, humne decide kar liya hai ki hum shaadi kar lenge. Abhi humne koi exact date final nhi ki lekin hum jaldi hi shaadi kar lenge isse pehle ki mere pregnancy logo ko dikhayi de. Haan mummy papa mein pregnant hu aur mujhe pata hai ki aap bhi grand parents banne ke liye kitne utsuk hai. Aur mujhe pata hai ki app hamare bache ko bhi utna hi pyaar karenge jitna aap mujhe karte the. Humne shaadi ki date isiliye late kar di kyu ki abhi mere boy friend ko ek minor infection hai jo ki carelessly mujhe bhi aa gaya hai. Ab jo ki mein aap ko sab kuch bata chuki hu mein aapko ye bhi batana chahti hu ki mere hostel me koi aag nhi lagi thi, mujhe koi skull fracture nhi hua tha, mein hospital me nhi thi aur na hi mein pregnant hu. Mein kisi se shaadi nhi kar rahi aur na hi mera koi hu aur mujhe pata hai ki aap bhi grand parents banne ke liye kitne utsuk hai. Aur mujhe pata hai ki app hamare bache ko bhi utna hi pyaar karenge jitna aap mujhe karte the. Humne shaadi ki date isiliye late kar di kyu ki abhi mere boy friend ko ek minor infection hai jo ki carelessly mujhe bhi aa gaya hai. Ab jo ki mein aap ko sab kuch bata chuki hu mein aapko ye bhi batana chahti hu ki mere hostel me koi aag nhi lagi thi, mujhe koi skull fracture nhi hua tha, mein hospital me nhi thi aur na hi mein pregnant hu. Mein kisi se shaadi nhi kar rahi aur na hi mera koi boyfriend hai. Bus mujhe History me ‘D’ mila hai aur chemistry me ‘F’. Isiliye bus ye yaad rakhna ki zindagi me cheeze isse bhi buri ho sakti hai aur choti choti baato par gussa nhi karte. Aapki pyaari beti Sharon Isse ek cheez to clear hai ki Sharon beshak chemisrtry me fail ho gayi but use psychology me ‘A’ milta hai. Kyunki use pata hai ki contrast principle kaise use karte hai. Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion Robert Cialdini CHAPTER 2:- Reciprocity Kuch saal pehle university professor ne ek experiment kiya. Unhone bilkul anjaan logo ko Christmas cards bheje. Professor, logo se kuch respone expect kar rhe the but JO RESPONSE UNHE MILA VO BILKUL Hl unexpected tha – Unhe bhut logo ne Holiday cards bheje jo unhe jaante tak nhi the. Ye rule kehta hai ki hum us cheez ko wapis karne ki koshish karte hai, jo hume logo se milta hai. Jaise ki agar koi aapko birthday gift de to aap bhi unka birthday yaad rakho ge aur shayad gift bhi de do. Vaise hi agar hume koi party me invite karta hai to hum bhi use party me invite karenge. Iska sabse bada example hai jab 1985 me Ethopia ne mexico ko 5000 dollars donate kiye kyuki mexico me earth quake aaya tha. Us samay Ethopia ki economy ki bhaut buri halat thi. Unke log bimari aur bhook Ethopia ki economy ki bhaut buri halat thi. Unke log bimari aur bhook se mar rhe the. In paristhitiyo me koi bhi surprise nhi hota agar paise Mexico ki taraf se Ethopia ko jaate lekin PAISE ETHOPIA KI TARAF SE Mexico ko gaye. Sab hairaan the ki aisa kyu hua? Kyu Ethopia ne apne logo ki madat ke bjaye Mexico ko donation diya. Jab ek journalist ne Ethopia ke officials se ye pucha ki aapne aisa kyu kiya to unhone jawab diya ki “1935 me Mexico ne Ethopia ki madat ki thi aur unhe donation diya tha jab,Italy ne un par attack kiya tha. Reciprocity ka rule itna powerful hai ki business ke log bhi isse istamal karna nhi bhulte. Amway Corporation jo ki personal care products banati hai, vo kuch hi saalo me ek basement -operation ki company se Billion dollar company ban ayi aur har saal 1.5 billion dollar sales karti hai. Amway ki ek bhut hi successful strategy thi jisme vo customer ke ghar me jaake unhe 24 ghanto ke liye ek tokri bhar ke apne products de dete. Products jaise ki Shampoo ki bottle, detergent, furniture polish, deodorizer aur jaise ki Shampoo ki bottle, detergent, furniture polish, deodorizer aur window cleaners. Amway ke log customer ko bolte ki aap inhe use kar ke dekh lijiye aur hum kal ya parso tak aapke paas aayenge agar aapko product pasand aaye to khareed lijiyega varna rehne dijiyega. Jab agle din Amway ke log customer ke paas aate aur logo se orders le lete jo unke products me interested hai. Kyunki logo ne sirf 1 ya 2 bottles hi use ki hoti thi vo same tokri dusre ghar me de dete. Jab is method ki sales ko analyze kiya gaya to sab bhut zaada shocked the aur unhone kaha” AAJ TAK HUMNE ITNI JALDI PRODUCTS KO BIKTE NHI DEKHA. AUR HMARI SALES BHUT HI ZAADA RATE SE BAD RHI HAI. ALMOST HAR CUSTOMER US TOKRI KE AADHE PRODUCTS KHAREEDNE KE LIYE READY HO JAATA HAI.” European scientist Eibl (i-bal) ne World War 1 ke dauraan ek German soldier ke bare me bataya hai Jiska kaam tha ki dushman desh ke soldier ko capture kar ke laana aur fir unse NUMYT kaam tha ki dushman desh ke soldier ko capture kar ke laana aur fir unse saari jaankari lena. Unhe is kaam ke liye rengate hui trench ke paar jaana padta tha jo ki ek bhaut khatarnaak kaam tha. Ek German soldier jo ki ye kaam bhut baar kar chukka tha. Is baar bhi use ye kaam diya gaya. Ek baar phir bahut chalaki se vo dushman ke elake me phuncha jaha par ek akela soldier khanna kha rha tha. Vo German soldier ko dekh ke bhut dar gaya, aur jo uske haath me ek bread ka tukda tha vo usne German solder ko de diya. Aur ye uski life ka shayad sabse important kaam tha. German soldier apne dushman desh ke soldier ke gift se itna impress ho gaya tha ki usne apna mission hi complete nhi kiya. Vo khali haath hi apne area me chala gaya. Jiski vajah se use apne seniors ka gusse ka bhi saamna karna pada. Usse ye samajh nhi aaya ki ye uske saath ua kya. LEKIN AB AAP AUR HUM JAANTE HAI KI USKE SAATH KYA HUA THA. VO POWER OF RECIPROCITY SE INFLUENCE HO CHUKA THA. SAATH KYA HUA THA. VO POWER OF RECIPROCITY SE INFLUENCE HO CHUKA THA. Rejection than retreat Technique. Maan lijiye agar mujhe aapse 10 Rs chahiye to mein pehle aapse 100 Rs maang sakta hu. Agar aap maan jaate hai to mujhe 10 guna paise mil jayenge aur agar aapn nhi maante hai maangta hai to mein aapse 10 Rs maang sakta hu. Agar mein is tareeke se aapse request karta hu to mein apne success ke chance bhut zaada badha deta hu. Agar aapse kaha jaaye ki aap ek billiard table ke dealer hai aur aapko inhe bechana hai. To aap pehle kaunsa table bechenge 25,000 Rs wala ya 3 lakh wala. Chances hai ki aap sasta wala hi pehle bechna prefer karenge. But Warren Kelley jo ki Brunswick me business promotional Manager hai kehte hai ki aap galat ho sakte hai. Apne point ko prove karne ke liye unhone ek experiment me pehle hafte apne saare customers ko saste billiard tables dikhaye aur baad me mehange. Us hafte average sale 150 jaate hai to mujhe 10 guna paise mil jayenge aur agar aapn nhi maante hai maangta hai to mein aapse 10 Rs maang sakta hu. Agar mein is tareeke se aapse request karta hu to mein apne success ke chance bhut zaada badha deta hu. Agar aapse kaha jaaye ki aap ek billiard table ke dealer hai aur aapko inhe bechana hai. To aap pehle kaunsa table bechenge 25,000 Rs wala ya 3 lakh wala. Chances hai ki aap sasta wala hi pehle bechna prefer karenge. But Warren Kelley jo ki Brunswick me business promotional Manager hai kehte hai ki aap galat ho sakte hai. Apne point ko prove karne ke liye unhone ek experiment me pehle hafte apne saare customers ko saste billiard tables dikhaye aur baad me mehange. Us hafte average sale 150 Dollar ki hui. Agle hafte har customer ko pehle sabse mehanga billard table dikhaya gaya chahe unhe sasts table hi chahiye ho aur phir baad me sasta table. Is pure hafte unki average sale PURE 1000 DOLLARS HUI !!! Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion Robert Cialdini Chapter 3:- Commitment and Consistency 1960 me Jonathan Freedman aur Scott Fraser ne ek experiment kiya. Vo California ke ek residential area me gaye aur khud ko ek volunteer worker batake vaha ke logo se ek request ki. Ki kya aap log apne is khoobsurat lawn me ye bada sa board laga sakte hai, jisme likha tha “DRIVE CAREFULLY”. Is case me 83% logo ne saaf mana kar diya ki vo ye bhadda board apne lawn me nahi laga sakte. Jab researchers ne ye experiment dobara dhauraya to us case me 76% log vo same board apne lawn me lagane ke liye raazi ho gaye. Ab sawal ye aata hai ki is baar researchers ne kya alag kiya tha? Is case me researchers ne 2 hafte pehle ek aur volunteer bheja tha, jisne ek 3 inch ka chota sa sticker logo ko apne ghar ki khidki me lagane ke liye bola tha jisme likha logo ko apne ghar ki khidki me lagane ke liye bola tha jisme likha tha “SAFE DRIVER”. Kyu ki vo sticker bhaut hi chotta tha isiliye maximum log use lagane ke liye raazi ho gaye the, aur commitment kar chuke the. Isiliye, inhi logo se jab 2 hafte baad badi request ki gayi ye vo bhi maan gaye. Is principle ko commitment and consistency principle Kaha jaate hai. Aur ye sales me bhi bhaut use hota hai. Agar salesman ko Zaada sales karvani hai to to pehle use chotti sale karvani padegi jiske liye maximum log jaldi raazi bhi ho jaayenge. Isko kuch is tareeke se sochiye, ki jaise hi kisine aapse thoda bhi samaan khareed liya, vo ab aapka customer ban gaya hai. Aur ek naye insaan ke mukable ek existing customer se sales karvana zaada aasan hai. Ye principle kitna powerful hai iska andazaa Korean war ke time “Chinese” ki policy se lagaya jaa sakta hai. Korean War ke dauraan bhaut se American soldiers ko capture karke “prisoner of war” camps me laaya gaya, jinhe Chinese communists chala rhe the. Chinese A 5 по сарсите патле MISULICI Vi vai camps me laaya gaya, jinhe Chinese communists chala rhe the. Chinese ne “lenient policy” apnaiye, jiska matlab tha ki vo kisi bhi American soldier ko koi harsh punishment nahi denge. January 1954 me jab Korean War khatam hui to captured American soldiers ko ghar jaane ka mauka diya gaya. Lekin 22 American soldiers ne America wapis jaane se mana kar diya aur kaha ki vo ab China me hi rehna chahte hai. Americans ka kehna tha ki Chinese communist’s ne unke soldier’s ka brain wash kar diya hai. Lekin ab sawal ye aata hai ki aisa kya kiya gaya tha un Americans soldiers ke saath ki na sirf unhone apne ghar jaane se mana kar diya tha balki war ke time me dushmano ko apni saari jaankari bhi di thi. Aur ye wahi soldiers hai jo kisi bhi tarah ka torture sehan kar sakte hai. Ye trained soldiers apne naam, rank aur serial number ke ilava kuch nhi batate. Iski puri analysis ke baad pata chala ki Chinese ne commitment and consistency kuch nhi batate. Iski puri analysis ke baad pata chala ki Chinese ne commitment and consistency principle se Americans ka thought process change kar diya tha. Vo prisoners ke paas jaate aur unhe bade pyaar se anti- American ya phir pro-communist statements likhne ko bolte. Jaise ki “United States perfect nhi hai”,”Ek communist country me naukri ki koi samasya nhi hai”. Jab ek baar ye choti requests complete ho jaati to vaisi hi aur intense requests ki jaati. Jaise ki unhe America se related saari problems ki ek list banana ke liye bola jaata. Aur baad me in sab points ka paragraph banake un prisoners ke sign liye jaate. Aur unhe ye saare points apne baaki American prisoners ke saath discuss karne ke liye bol diye jaate. Baad me Chinese un essays ko anti American radio me broadcast karvaate taki baaki American soldiers bhi unhe sun le. Ye sab karne se American soldier ko lagta ki usne to dushman ka saath de diya hai. Aurricno annn doch lol,hillaf writton A < prisoners ke sign liye jaate. Aur unhe ye saare points apne baaki American prisoners ke saath discuss karne ke liye bol diye jaate. Baad me Chinese un essays ko anti American radio me broadcast karvaate taki baaki American soldiers bhi unhe sun le. Ye sab karne se American soldier ko lagta ki usne to dushman ka saath de diya hai. Aur usne apne desh ke khillaf written me statements bhi di hai. Aur ye saare kaam us se zabardasti bhi nhi karvaye gaye. In sab baato se un soldiers par itna zaada psychological pressure padta tha ki vo apni self image ko hi change kar dete the. Vo is baat pe yakeen karne lag jaate the ki America me hi problem hai. America ne hi war shuru ki hai aur unke desh me bhaut si kamiya hai. Par bechare American soldiers ye nhi jaante the ki unpe commitment and consistency principle ka istamaal kiya jaa rha tha.In Chotti chotti commitment se un soldiers ka pura sochne ka tarika badal diya gaya. Α < Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion Robert Cialdini Chapter 4:- SOCIAL PROOF Kya kabhi aapne socha hai ki T.V. me jo comedy shows aate hai unke background me laughing tracks kyu dale hote hai ya phir kyu koi aadmi bina baato ke jokes par has raha hota hai.Surveys me agar aap logo se puchoge ki kya aapko ye hasi ki aawaz pasand aati hai to maximum log aapko yehi kahengi ki “UNHE IN JHOOTI HASSI SE BHAUT IRRITATION HOTI HAI YA PHIR VOIS SE NAFRAT KARTE HAI”. Phir sawal ye aata hai ki iske bavajood kyu producers in hassi ki aawazo ko apne shows me daalte hai?Aisa isiliye hai kyunki ye producers jaante hai ki research kya kehti hai. Experiments se pata challa hai ki in jhooti hassi ki vajah se audience ZAADA DER TAK HASTI HAI jab unhe koi joke sunaya jaye. Aur ye dekha gaya hai ki ye poor jokes me zaada effective rehta hai.T.V shows hi nhi ye gaya hai ki ye poor jokes me zaada effective rehta hai.T.V shows hi nhi ye principle baaki jagah par bhi istamaal kiya jaata hai, jaise ki, Bartenders pehle se hi jars me paise bhar ke rakhte hai taaki log ye samajh jaaye ki yaha par har aadmi tip deke jaata hai aur isiliye unhe bhi tip dene chahiye. Maan lijiye ki aap nayi jagah par aaye hai aur aapko bhaut bhook lagi hai. Ab aap ek restaurant ki talash me hai. Lekin aapka phone nhi chal raha isiliye aap koirestaurat nhi dhund paa rhe hai. Aap thodi dur jaate hai aur vaha par aapko 2 restaurant dikhayi dete hai. Ek restaurant ke bahar bhut si car parked hai, aur dusre ke bahar koi bhi car parked nhi hai. Ab sawaal ye aata hai ki aap kis restaurant me khaaa khaayenge? Agar aap baaki logo ki tarah hai to aap usi restaurant me jaayenge jaha par already cars parked hai. “KYUKI YE EK BHAUT BADA SOCIAL PROOF HAI”. Agar aapka phone chal bhi raha hota to bhi aap internet me usi restaurant me jaate jiske reviews ache hai. Hum sab is SOCIAL PROOF ko follow karte hai lekin problem tab aati hai jab log is principle ko exploit karke hamara fayda uthate hai. Jaise ki internet me restaurants ko jhutthe reviews de dena ya phir kisi restaurant ke bahar khud ki cars park kar dena, takki log use zaada popular samajh kar vaha par aaye.Author kehte hai ki hum un logo ko zaada follow karte hai jinhe hum sochte hai ki vo humare jaise hai. Is principle ko prove karne ke liye Columbia University ke psychologists ne ek experiment kiya. Researchers ne Mahattan ke midtown me wallets rakh diye. Hare ek wallet me 2 dollar cash aur 26.30 Dollar ke checks the aur wallet ke owner ki puri information. Iske saath wallet me ek aur letter tha jisse pata chalta tha ki vo ek baar nhi balki do baar gum hua hai. Vo letter wallet ke malik ke liye likha gaya tha. Isme likha tha ki “MUJHE AAP WALLET GIRA HUA MILAAE, MEIN AAPKA WALLET WAPIS LAUTA RHA HU AUR MUJHE KHUSHI HAI KI MEIN AAPKI MANAT IAD DAVA GIRA HUA MILAAE, MEIN AAPKA WALLET WAPIS LAUTA RHA HU AUR MUJHE KHUSHI HAI KI MEIN AAPKI MADAT KAR PAYA”. Researchers ye janna chahte the kya jis aadmi ko ye wallet mila hai kya vo bhi purane aadmi ki tarah wallet wapis karte hai ya nahi. Jitne bhi wallets researchers’ ne giraye unme se aadhe wallets me researchers ne letter ek average American ki English me lika tha jabki baaki wallets me letter ek bhaut kharaab English me likha hua tha jisse pata chalta tha ki vo wallet wapis karne wala insaan American nhi hai. Ab sawal ye aata hai ki jab bhi koi wallet uthake vo letter padhega to kya vo similarity ki vajah se wallet wapis karega ya nhi. Inke results simple the sirf 35% logo ne pehle case me wallet wapis kiye jisme letter ek kharaab English me likha hua tha. Lekin pure 70% logo ne vo wallet isiliye wapis kar diya kyunki wo letter unhi ke desh ke kisi insaan ne likha hua tha. Yaani principle of Similarity and social proof results ko double karne ki power rakhta hai. MADAT KAR PAYA”. Researchers ye janna chahte the kya jis aadmi ko ye wallet mila hai kya vo bhi purane aadmi ki tarah wallet wapis karte hai ya nahi. Jitne bhi wallets researchers’ ne giraye unme se aadhe wallets me researchers ne letter ek average American ki English me lika tha jabki baaki wallets me letter ek bhaut kharaab English me likha hua tha jisse pata chalta tha ki vo wallet wapis karne wala insaan American nhi hai. Ab sawal ye aata hai ki jab bhi koi wallet uthake vo letter padhega to kya vo similarity ki vajah se wallet wapis karega ya nhi. Inke results simple the sirf 35% logo ne pehle case me wallet wapis kiye jisme letter ek kharaab English me likha hua tha. Lekin pure 70% logo ne vo Wallet isiliye wapis kar diya kyunki wo letter unhi ke desh ke kisi insaan ne likha hua tha. Yaani principle of Similarity and social proof results ko double karne ki power rakhta hai. Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion Robert Cialdini CHAPTER 5:- LIKING Ye principle kehta hai ki hum un logo ki requests ko nhi taal sakte jinhe hum like karte hai. Aur business me iska perfect example hai Tupperware.Tupperware ek American company hai jo ki plastic containers bnati hai. Tupperware gharo me party organize karte the, aur apni sales badhaane ke lie apne customers ko har tareeke se influence karta the. Jaise ki Reciprocity:- Party me aaye sabhi logo ko games me include karna aur sabko ek gift dena. – Commitment :- Har participant jinke pass Tupperware ke already products hai unhe sabko Tupperware ke fayde bolne ke liye kehana.Social Proof:- Jab log dekhte the ki unke saamne unke friends Tupperware ke products le rahe hai to vo ek social proof create karta tha jisse sab influence hote the.Lekin inme se sabse Α < Credle Kalla Lid jisse SdU inuenice hote the.Lekin inme se sabse effective influence tha liking. Kyunki Tupperware ke products khareedne ke liye koi stranger nhi bolta tha ye request karvaayi jaati thi ek aisi lady se jo ki sabhi dost hai. Ye vohi lady hai jiske ghar me party ho rhi hai aur isi ne sabhi ko vaha par invite kiya hua hai. Party me sab log ye jaante bhi the ki har ek purchase par us lady ko commission milegi. Lekin phir bhi vo apne is dost ko mana hi kar paate. Ye liking principle kitna effective hai iska andaaza is baat se lagaya jaa sakta hai ki jab author ne ek lady se is party ke bare me baat ki to unhone kaha “UFF MUJHE IN TUPPERWARE KI PARTIES SE NAFRAT HO GAYI HAI. MEIN INKE SAARE CONTAINERS KHAREED CHUKI HU. AGAR MUJHE AUR CONTAINERS CHAHIYE BHI HO TO MEIN VO MARKET SE SASTE ME LE SAKTI HUN. PAR KYA KARU JAB BHI KOI CLOSE FRIEND BULATA HAI TO MUJHE INKE PRODUCTS KHAREEDNE HI PADTE HAI.” Hmmmm lekin liking kin kin cheezo se badti hai inme sabse pehle aata hai..Physical attractiveness:- se badti hai inme sabse pehle aata hai.. Physical attractiveness:- Ye manna jaata hai ki sunder dikhne wale logo ko socially zaada importance di jaati hai, magar studies batati hai ki in logo ko jitna hum sochte hai us se kayi zaada advantage milti hai. Researchers ye dikha chuke hai ki humara brain khoobsurat dikhane wale logo ke saath saari achayiyan automatically jod deta hai jaise ki talent, honesty intelligence vagarah. Ek study me , interviewers ne ache dikhane wale logo ko unki capability ke mukaable zaada marks diye. Jabki baad me jab un interviewers se pucha gaya ki kya inki looks ki vajah se aapke decisions me koi badlaav aaya? To interviewers ne saaf mana kar diya. Pennsylvania study me researchers ne 74 aadmi unki looks ke according marks diye jinke khilaaf court me case chal raha tha. Aur, bhaut baad me, researchers ne un sabke court records check kiye, to unhe pata chala ki attractive aadmiyo ko bhaut kam sazza di gayi thi. In fact, attractive logo ke mukaable fact, attractive logo ke mukaable unattractive logo ko 2 guna saza sunai gayi thi. Similarity:- Magar ab sawaal ye aata hai ki agar hum physically attractive nhi hai to aur kya raaste hai jisse hum apni likings badha sakte hai.Hum un logo ko pasand karte hai jo hamare jaise hote hai. Jiska ek example hai kapde. Kaafi studies me pata challa hai ki hum un logo ki zaada madat karenge jinhone hamari tarah kapde pehne hai. 1970 ki ek study me experimenters college students ke paas gaye aur unse phone call karne ke liye paise maange. Jab experimenters ne student jaise kapde pehne the to 2/3rd se zaada students’ ne unki request ko accept kiya. Lekin jab experimenters students se alag kapde pehnke gaye to aadhe se bhi kam baar students ne unki request ko accept kiya.Liking badhaane ka dusra tareeka hai ki jab humare interests aur background dusro se milte hai. For example, Car salesman, customer ki hobbies aur A < dusro se milte hai. For example, Car salesman, customer ki hobbies aur background ke bare me pata karne aur unke bare me customer ke saath baat karne ke liye trained hote hai. Agar customer ki car ki back seat me golf balls hai to, salesman bolenge ki “KAASH YE BAARISH RUK JATI AUR MEIN DOBARA SE GOLF KHE PAATA”. Agar, car salesman ko pata chalta ki customer kisi aur state se hai to vo customer se zarror puchenge ki aap kaha se ho. aur uske baad bahaut surprise ke saath jawaab denge “Acha !!! Mera bhi janam vahi ka hai”. Compliments. Joe Girard, jo har roz 5 se zaada cars aur trucks bech chuke hai, aur jinhe Guinness Book of World Records ne greatest car salesman” ka khitaab diya hai. Batate hai ki vo itni sales isilye kar paaye kyonki unka hamesha ek hi goal hota tha aur vo tha apne customer ki pasand banna. Vo kuch aisa karte the jo bahut se logo ko bevkufi aur mehanga kaam lag sakta hai. Vo har mahine apne puraane 13000 se zaada customers ko greeting card bhejte the…!!! A < greatest car salesman” ka khitaab diya hai. Batate hai ki vo itni sales isilye kar paaye kyonki unka hamesha ek hi goal hota tha aur vo tha apne customer ki pasand banna. Vo kuch aisa karte the jo bahut se logo ko bevkufi aur mehanga kaam lag sakta hai. Vo har mahine apne puraane 13000 se zaada customers ko greeting card bhejte the..!!! Greeting card har mahine change hota tha… HAPPY NEW YEAR se le ke HAPPY THANKSGIVING. Lekin un sab par ek hi message hota tha. Har card me likha hota tha “I LIKE YOU”. Joe kehte hai ” Us card me meine kabhi kuch aur hi likha. Mein unse sirf ek hi baat kehta tha aur vo tha…. I like you”.Zara sochiye saal me 12 mahine 12 cards, 13000 se zaada logo ko aur sabme sirf ek hi baat “I LIKE YOU”. Ek simple formula jisne JOE ko crorepati bana diya aur unka naam “Guinness world book” of record me likhva diya. Vaise isse ek cheez to clear hai ki insaan compliments ka bhukha hai. Α < < Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion Robert Cialdini Chapter 6:- Authority Log unki baate maante hai jinhe vo authority consider karte hai. Doctors ko safeed coat me imagine kijiye. Hum jaise hi kisi doctor ko operating room me dekhte hai, hum reaction mode me chale jaate hai. Doctor ka diya hua koi bhi sujhav hum aankhe band kar ke maan lete hai, us par thoda bhi nhi sochte aur unki advise seriously le lete hai.Ye koi nayi baat nhi hai, jaise hi hum kisi authority ko dekhte hai hum apne deemag ko off mode me le aate hai. Jaise ki koi vakeel, koi IAS officer ya koi bada engineer. Apne deemag ko is shortcut mode me laane se hume kaafi fayde bhi milte hai. Kyunki ye log apne field ke bare me zaada jaante hai isiliye inka decision aankhe band kar ke maan lena humare liye zaada tar faydemand bhi hota hai. Lekin problem tab aati hai jab koi zaaua lai layucina U NILIULa nai. Lekin problem tab aati hai jab koi businessman ya koi insaan authority ko istamaal karke hume manipulate karne ki koshish karta hai. Agar hum bhi apne kaam me logo ko influence karna chahte hai to hume hamesha koshish karni chahiye kilog hume authority ki tarah dekhe. Aur ye kaafi tareeko se kiya jaa sakta hai jaise ki:- Title:- Title sabse bade authority signals hai. Titles jaise ki doctor, judge,politician,engineer vagarah. Ek title ko genuinely apne naam ke aage Igane ke liye bhut samay lag jaata hai. Par bhut se log iska galat fayda bhi uthate hai. Aur ye hum har roz TV ki add. me dekhte hi hai. Ek title se log na hi sirf influence hote hai balki title wale insaan ki height ko bhi zaada maapte hai. Ek experiment me ek aadmi ko Australian college ke students se milvaya gaya. Unhe bataya gaya ki ye Cambridge university England se aaye hai. Ek class ke students ko bataya gaya ki ye Cambridge me student hai. Dusri class ko bata gaya ki ye vaha par lecturer hai,teesri class ko bataya Dusri class ko bata gaya ki ye vaha par lecturer hai,teesri class ko bataya gaya ki ye vaha par senior professor hai. Jab vo aadmi class se bahar chala jaata to researchers sab students se us aadmi ki height ko guess karne ke liye bolte. Is study me dekha gaya ki jaise jaise same aadmi ko bade status ke roop me logo ko dikhaya gaya vaise vaise unhone us aadmi ki height ko zaada bataya. Same aadmi ki height ko logo ne 2.5 inch zaada guess kiya jab use professor introduce kiya gaya tha. Clothes:- Dusri type of authority aati hai hamare kapdo se. Texas me ek research ki gayi thi, jisme researchers ne ek 31 saal ke aadmi ko kaha ki use sadak ko cross karna hai, jab traffic lights red hai. Pehle case me is aadmi ko ek fresh business suit aur tie pehnayi gayi. Dusre case me isi aadmi ko normal shirt aur trouser pehnaye gaye. Researchers dur se dekh rahe the ki kitne log traffic light ke signal ko na maankar uske peche aadmi sadak cross karne ke liye chal padte hai. Pehle cse me 3.5 guna log bacho ki tarah us suit wale aadmi ke ne ek 31 saal ke aadmi ko kaha ki use sadak ko cross karna hai, jab traffic lights red hai. Pehle case me is aadmi ko ek fresh business suit aur tie pehnayi gayi. Dusre case me isi aadmi ko normal shirt aur trouser pehnaye gaye. Researchers dur se dekh rahe the ki kitne log traffic light ke signal ko na maankar uske peche aadmi sadak cross karne ke liye chal padte hai. Pehle cse me 3.5 guna log bacho ki tarah us suit wale aadmi ke peeche street lights ke signal ko cross kar ke chal pade. Trappings:- Researchers ne ek experiment me conclude kiya ki agar ek mehangi brand new car green lights ke bavajood sadak par ruk jaati hai to uske peeche log kaafi der tak khade rehte hai aur bhut der baad horn bajate hai. Lekin agar utni hi der koi purani car green lights me khadi hojati hai to log bhut zaada bar horn bajate hai. Ek experiment me to 2 logo ne gusse se us purani car ke pichale bumper me apni car touch tak kar di. Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion Robert Cialdini CHAPTER 7:- SCARCITY:- THE RULE OF THE FEW Aise dialogues to aapne dukano me bhut sune honge:-“Ye bas do aakhri piece hai, aur ye bhi bikane hi wale hai. Company ne inhe banana band kar diye hai“ “Is pure area me bas do hi plot reh gaya hai baaki sab bik chuke hai unme se ek yeh hai. Aapko dusra pasand nhi aayega vo itna acha nhi hai “Agar abhi aapne iske 2 piece lene hai to le lo, peeche se supply band hai AB KAB AAYEGI KUCH KEH NHI SAKTE”.Aisa aapse isiliye kaha jaata hai kyunki dukandaar is basic principle ko jaante hai “KI JO CHEEZ JITNI KAM HOTI HAI HUM LOG USE UTNA HI PASAND KARTE HAI”. Logo ko kisi cheez ko pane ke mukable kisi cheez ko khone ka idea A < Logo ko kisi cheez ko pane ke mukable kisi cheez ko khone ka idea zaada influence karta hai. Is principle par social psychologist Stephen Worchel ne ek experiment kiya. Ye experiment simple tha unhone participants ko chocolate biscuits diye aur unhe use taste kar ke RATINGS dene ke liye kaha. Aadhe logo ko jo jaar diya gaya tha usme 10 chocolate biscuits the. Jabki baaki aadhe logo ke jaar me sirf 2 chocolate biscuits the. Jin logo ke jaar me sirf 2 biscuit the unhone un biscuits ko zaada RATINGS di aur bataya ki iska price zaada hona chahiye. Ab is experiment me kuch itna khaas nhi tha aur ye hume shayad pehle se hi pata thi. Lekin isi experiment me ek aur cheez ki gayi thi. Ek aur group me pehle logo ko 10 biscuit wala jaar diya gaya aur uske baad experimenters ne us jaar ko 2 biscuit se badal vMIM JUMI gaya aur uske baad experimenters ne us jaar ko 2 biscuit se badal diya.Researchers ye dekhna chahte the ki KYA scarcity ki bhi types hai? Aur KYA hum kisi cheez ko zaada value dene lagenge jo hamare saamne hi kam ho gaya hai?Jab logo ne dekha ki unka 10 biscuit ka jaar 2 biscuit se badal diya gaya hai to unhone unhi biscuits ko baaki groups ke mukable BHUT ZAADA Ratings di. Author ke bhai Richard is principle ko bhut ache se samajhte the. Aur unhe apne college fees dene ke liye weekend me sirf 2-4 hours hi kaam karna padta. Baaki pura hafta vo aaram se apni studies ko dete. Richard cars bechte the, SECOND HAND CARS. Ek hafte vo ek car khareedte. Use saabun aur paani se saaf karte, newspaper me add. dete aur agle hafte use zaada price me bech dete.Har baar unki car zaada price me hi bikti thi. Iske live vo scarcity principle ka istamaal car zaada price me hi bikti thi. Iske liye vo scarcity principle ka istamaal karte.Pichle hafte hijo unhone car khareede thi. Uski add. vo newspapaper me dete. Aur jab log us car ke bare me inquiry karne ke liye call karte to Richard un sabko appointment time de dete-SAME APPOINTMENT TIME.Maan lijiye ki unhone sabko 2 baje bulaya hai. Jaise hi pehla customer unke paas pahaunchta vo use car dekhane lagte. Customer car me kamiya nikaalta, aur price kam karne ke liye bolta. Itni hi der me dusra customer bhi waha aa jata. Richard batate hai ki vo customers ke expressions ko ek dam change hote dekh sakte the. Dono customers ko vo car achanak aur zaada achi lagne lagti. Richard unme jealousy paida karne ke liye dusre customer ko bolte “KLAAP WAIT KAR LIJIYE , AAPSE Α < ke liye dusre customer ko bolte “KLAAP WAIT KAR LIJIYE, AAPSE PEHLE YE AAYE THE AGAR INHE CAR PASAND NHIAATI TO AAP ISE KHAREED SAKTE HAI”. Ab un customer ka brain us car ki achaiya ya buraiyaan dekhne ke bajaye, is baat me lag jaate ki agar unhe ye car khareedni hai to abhi khareedni padegi varna kabhi nahi.ltni hi der me waha par teesra customer aa jaata.Richard batate hai ki itna competition PEHLE customer ke liye sehan karna bahut mushkil ho jaata. Aur zaada tar pehla customer hi us car ko khareed leta. Is case me Richard ne 2 kaam kiye. Pehle unko emotional kar diya jiski vajah se ab vo deemag se nhi balki emotional hoke decision le rahe the. Dusra, us competition ki vaja se unhe laga ki us car ke bhut saare customers hai kyunki agar unke saamne hi 3 log aa gaye to baad me pata nhi kitne aur log ise dekhne ke liye aayenge, par un becharo ko ye customer ka brain us car ki acharya ya buraiyaan dekhne ke bajaye, is baat me lag jaate ki agar unhe ye car khareedni hai to abhi khareedni padegi varna kabhi nahi.ltni hi der me waha par teesra customer aa jaata.Richard batate hai ki itna competition PEHLE customer ke liye sehan karna bahut mushkil ho jaata. Aur zaada tar pehla customer hi us car ko khareed leta. Is case me Richard ne 2 kaam kiye. Pehle unko emotional kar diya jiski vajah se ab vo deemag se nhi balki emotional hoke decision le rahe the. Dusra, us competition ki vaja se unhe laga ki us car ke bhut saare customers hai kyunki agar unke saamne hi 3 log aa gaye to baad me pata nhi kitne aur log ise dekhne ke liye aayenge, par un becharo ko ye nhi pata tha ki sirf vo teen hi us car ko dekhne ke liye aaye the.

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